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Web developers have a habit of taking HTTP for granted because it just works. HTTP works so well that people all over the world exercise the protocol air jordan jumpman team 2 review
without even blinking an eye. With so much usage it is imperative that we understand how to use the protocol correctly. The air jordan 6 unc footlocker house
is well documented as are the nike free run 3 orange grey
. However, in this post I want to focus on a less-noted topic: the need to respect idempotency when using HTTP.

Idempotent is a big word with a simple meaning, so don't feel intimidated. Idempotency refers to the ability to operate on a resource with the same command any number of times and maintain the same state. That is to say the resource stays unchanged after each subsequent operation. For example, SQL update statements are idempotent. If we find a user named 'Patrick' and set his employer to '8th Light' the end result will be that 'Patrick' is employed by '8th Light' even if the update is run more than once.

How does it help to maintain idempotence with HTTP? One clear win is that clients of a server can retry the same request any number of times. Suppose a client connects to a server, sends a request, and then a timeout occurs. Instead of attempting to figure out what the world looks like according to the server, the client can just send the same request again without fear. This is further amplified if we want to make multiple requests to multiple services. If one part of the process fails, we can resend each request without having to perform any logic to target the failure across all of the involved systems. Being mindful of idempotence can also save you in situations where you should not create or further mutate a resource, such as charging credit cards.

The HTTP verbs GET, HEAD, DELETE, PUT are always idempotent if their use correctly conforms to the womens nike roshe run black sole shoes
. POST is the verb for non-idempotent requests and is often understood to be for create requests. PUT is usually refered to as the update verb, but this understanding might be a bit naive.

Sometimes it can be difficult to differentiate between a PUT and a POST. For instance, what if we implement a counter? Imagine a system (circa 1995) where everytime a user interacts with the counter it increases by one. In this example, we can GET the count of the counter at anytime. Should we use PUT when we want to increment the counter? It might be intuitive to say yes because we are updating the counter resource. I might have baited you a bit with the word update, because the answer is no. Why is it no? Updating the counter is not idempotent and therefore falls out of specification for PUT. So how do we justify POST which is typically associated with creation ? Well, we could say that we are creating counter entries, and our get is simply a summation of counter entries. Of course this is only the perception from the outside world, the server can implement this any way it chooses.

Time Magazine put Donald Trump on its cover last year. The Forward’s Jake Romm called the cover shot a covert act of political subversion. It became the most-read article in the history of our digital publication. A year later, his analysis rings even truer than ever.

Time Magazine’s annual “Person of the Year” announcement is, year after year, grossly misunderstood. Time Magazine is clear on its sole criterion – “the person who had the greatest influence, for better or worse, on the events of the year” –yet, do a simple search on Twitter and you will find countless people who seem to think that the “Person of the Year” selection is tantamount to an endorsement. Previous winners have included Joseph Stalin (1939, 1942), Ayatollah Khomeini (1979), Adolf Hitler (1938), and other figures who I think it is safe to assume the Time staff does not endorse.

This year, it should come as no surprise that President-elect Donald Trump was chosen to grace the cover of Time’s annual issue (shot by Jewish photographer Nadav Kander ). “For better or worse,” Trump, during his campaign and now after his election, has certainly been among the greatest influences on the events of the year. For clues as to how Time feels about that question — is it “for better or worse?” — we can look to the image chosen for the cover of the issue. The decisions that Time made regarding how to photograph Trump reveal a layered, nuanced field of references that place the image among, in this viewer’s opinion, the magazine’s greatest covers.

In order to deconstruct the image, let’s focus on three key elements (leaving aside the nike store air max 97
in ‘Time’ that makes it look like Trump has red horns): the color, the pose, and the chair:

The Color

Notice how the colors appear slightly washed out, slightly muted, soft. The palette creates what we might call a vintage effect. The image’s sharpness and detail reveal the contemporaneity of the picture, but the color suggests an older type of film, namely, Kodachrome. Kodachrome , the recently discontinued film produced by Kodak, was designed to create accurate color reproduction in the early 1900’s. It was immensely popular between the late 30’s and 70s, and its distinctive look defines our common visual concept of nostalgia.

By reproducing a Kodachrome color palette, the Time cover makes us reimagine the cover as if it were an image from the era of Kodachrome’s mass popularity. (Where your mind goes when thinking about leaders from the era of nike air max 90 sneaker boot ice mens sneakers
, segregation, and the Cold War era is up to you.) This visual-temporal shift in a sense mirrors a lot of the drives that fueled Trump’s rise. Trump ran a campaign based on regressive policies and attitudes —anti-environmental protection, anti-abortion, pro-coal, etc. This election was not just about regressive policy choices, but also about traditional values (defined primarily by the Christian right), about nostalgia for American greatness and security, about nostalgia for a pre-globalized world.

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